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COMBATING TERRORISM EXCHANGE

A Quarterly, Peer Reviewed Online Journal

From the Editor | Vol. 9 No. 2, July 2019


Jus ad bellum—“right to war,” also known as Just War theory. Jus in bello—“right conduct in war,” the foundation of international humanitarian law. These are the legal principles that have guided international warfare since the Covenant of the League of Nations was written 100 years ago, at the end of “the war to end all wars” in 1919. They were further codified in 1945, when the United Nations Charter was adopted following the next, even more horrific, world war. Read the Letter from the Editor.

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The Man Who Would Be King

LCDR Reed A. Kitchen, US Navy 

In 1888, while living in Allahabad in British India, Rudyard Kipling published a novella titled “The Man Who Would be King.” The story, which was turned into a movie starring Sean Connery and Michael Caine, follows two former soldiers on their quest to become the rulers of Kafiristan (the province of Nuristan in modern-day Afghanistan). Their escapades raise issues that are still relevant to those charged with advising foreign militaries, and the film is one of two (the other is John Milius’s Farewell to the King) that are used as teaching tools in the US Naval Postgraduate School’s Military Advisor course..,
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The Rise of Isis in the Philippines and The Battle of Marawi

Col Edwin Amadar, Philippine Marine Corps,
And Maj Bobby Tuttle, Us Army Special FORCES

Since the 1990s, the Philippines has faced numerous threats from insurgent and terrorist organizations that have thrived in under-governed regions. Mindanao, the second largest island in the Philippines, has served as a safe haven for both indigenous and transnational terrorist groups, including al Qaeda (AQ), Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), and, most recently, the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Beginning in 2014, several indigenous jihadist groups in Mindanao pledged the baya, or oath of allegiance, to ISIS, including the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), Ansar Khilafah Philippines (AKP), Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF), and the Maute Group...
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Déjà Vu:The Shared History of SOF - Switzerland as a Case Study

LTC Matthias Fiala, Swiss Special Forces

Special operations forces have become a mainstay of military operations in the twenty-first century, but the journey to reach this point has been neither quick nor painless. Most of the existing literature on SOF history, the theories and principles of its use, SOF’s role in achieving national security objectives, and its strategic utility and disutility, was written from the perspective of major military powers like the United States. Although Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland, in particular, have expanded the analysis of SOF from a small state perspective in recent years, their historical investigations remain underdeveloped. This article explores the origins of Switzerland’s special forces to answer the following question: Are there any similarities in the ways that smallstates and major powers created and developed their SOF?...
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Keeping All the Frogs in the Boil

MAJ Jonas, Netherlands Special Operations Forces

After a long, tiring flight from cold and freezing Amsterdam to hot and sweaty Baghdad, I simply needed a place to sleep. Upon arriving atthe Baghdad Diplomatic Support Centre, the first thing I saw was a swimming pool full of coalition soldiers playing water volleyball, screaming and yelling for the ball and for attention from their buddies. I dropped my bags and sat down in the shade near the pool for a moment to observe. It looked like these guys were having fun, but I also saw lots of miscommunication and misunderstanding during their game. I was reminded of a small canal full of croaking frogs back home in the Netherlands: each player was eager to get the others’ attention by making as much noise as possible, but they did so with absolutely no plan or structure.
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THE CTAP INTERVIEW

Todd Greentree, Oxford University
Interviewed by Craig Whiteside,
US Naval War College at the US Naval Postgraduate School 

This interview is taken from the collection of the CombatingTerrorism Archive Project (CTAP).1 On 30 November 2018, Dr. Todd Greentree delivered a lecture to students and faculty at the Naval Postgraduate Schoolin Monterey, California, titled, “Sowing the Dragon’s Teeth: The Enduring Consequences of US Support for the Afghan Mujahedeen during the Cold War.” Afterward, he spoke with Dr. Craig Whiteside of the US Naval War College inMonterey, California, about his research. CRAIG WHITESIDE: How did the US strategy of helping the Mujahedeen inAfghanistan come about after the Soviet invasion in 1979?...
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ETHICS AND INSIGHTS

Ethics for Ethics’ Sake, George Lober

I’ve been haunted recently by one scene in the 2018 film Bohemian Rhapsody. In it, a young Farrokh (Freddie) Bulsara announces, during a dinner with family and friends at his parents’ modest home, that he has legally changed his surname to Mercury. Everyone at the table is stunned. In the argumentthat follows, Freddie’s father rebukes Freddie’s rock star ambitions with one of the old man’s favorite sayings, a Zoroastrian precept that one should livea life in the practice of “good words, good thoughts, and good deeds.” To which Freddie dismissively replies, “And how’s that worked out for you?” The question is rhetorical. In Freddie’s mind, the precept’s advice hasn’t worked out for his father at all. Instead, Freddie’s reply is intended as a rejection of the father’s pious nature, his modest achievements, the family’s humble home, and the moral principles that have guided the father’s life. Freddie, as the film makes clear, wants more, and after betraying the love of his fiance, the friendship of his band mates, and the loyalty of his agent, he achieves it, including eventually a mansion in which each of his cats has its own spacious room...
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THE WRITTEN WORD

Hitler’s Brandenburgers: The Third Reich’s Elite Special Forces by Lawrence Paterson 
Reviewed by LTC Ole Stephan, German Army

Hitler’s Brandenburgers: The Third Reich’s Elite Special Forces provides a comprehensive view of this unique World War II German special forces unit. Author and military historian Lawrence Paterson succeeds in demystifying the history oft his unit in a well-structured manner, and provides fascinating detail about the unit’s key operations.Paterson begins the story of the Branden burgers by highlighting the characters who were responsible for creating this unusual and profoundly successful bandof men. He traces the history of the unit back to its roots in East Africa during World War I, specifically to the guerrilla campaign under the command of German Army Lieutenant Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, known asthe “Lion of Africa.” One of Lettow-Vorbeck’s subordinates was a young sergeant named Theodor von Hippel. Inspired by the example of Lettow-Vorbeck, Hippelreen listed in the Wehrmacht (the German armed forces during World War II) in1935, where he advocated for the creation of a guerrilla-style unit similar to theone in which he had served under Lettow-Vorbeck. He proposed a small, elite formation of men trained in demolition and small-arms combat and fluent inforeign languages, who would conduct covert attacks behind enemy lines...
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PUBLICATION ANNOUNCEMENTS

These recent JSOU Press publications are available electronically in the JSOU Library Management System in the JSOU Press Publications 2019 section: https://jsou.libguides.com/jsoupublications
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DISCLAIMER

This journal is not an official DoD publication. The views expressed or implied within are those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any governmental or nongovernmental organization or agency of the United States of America or any other country.

TERMS OF COPYRIGHT

Copyright © 2019 by the author(s), except where otherwise noted. The Combating Terrorism Exchange journal (CTX) is a peer-reviewed, quarterly journal available free of charge to individuals and institutions. Copies of this journal and the articles contained herein may be printed or downloaded and redistributed for personal, research, or educational purposes free of charge and without permission, except if otherwise noted. Any commercial use of CTX or the articles published herein is expressly prohibited without the written consent of the copyright holder. The copyright of all articles published herein rests with the author(s) of the article, unless otherwise noted.


EDITORIAL STAFF

ELIZABETH SKINNER Managing Editor
RYAN STUART Design & Layout

EDITORIAL REVIEW BOARD

VICTOR ASAL

University of Albany SUNY

CHRIS HARMON

Marine Corps University

TROELS HENNINGSEN

Royal Danish Defense College

PETER MCCABE

Joint Special Operations University

IAN C. RICE

US Army

ANNA SIMONS

Naval Postgraduate School

SHYAMSUNDER TEKWANI

Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies

CRAIG WHITESIDE

Naval War College